Humans are exposed to DPG primarily through skin contact and incidental inhalation of vapors and aerosols. DPG is expected to be readily absorbed by oral exposure but a study using human skin found negligible absorption for dermal exposure. Inhalation exposure to significant quantities of DPG is not expected. Studies on the metabolism of structurally similar propylene glycols indicate that in the body DPG will readily break down to propylene glycol and then to carbon dioxide.
Studies show that DPG has a very low degree of toxicity. It has low acute toxicity by oral, dermal, or inhalation routes and is non-irritating to the eye and skin with no evidence of allergic skin reactions. In long term studies conducted in laboratory animals, some organ effects were noted but these were of questionable biological significance and occured at very high dose levels of low relevance to human exposures. Tests have shown DPG is not carcinogenic or genotoxic, nor does it have effects on fertility or reproduction.
In the environment, the low Log Kow value for DPG indicates this substance will have a tendency to partition to aqueous phases and a low potential for bioaccumulation. DPG is readily biodegradable in fresh water and biodegrades in seawater, and is not expected to be persistent in the environment. Based on test data on DPG and structurally similar propylene glycols in aquatic organism, DPG is demonstrated to be a low concern for ecotoxicological hazards.